Publication:
YIELD TO PEDESTRIANS? EXAMINING INFRASTRUCTURE AND DEFENSIVE-MINDED METHODOLOGIES IN SECURING PEDESTRIAN-RICH ENVIRONMENTS

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Authors
Cawley, Liam P.
Subjects
outdoor dining
vehicle ramming
vehicle ramming attack
VRA
soft target
outdoor spaces
green spaces
target hardening
protective security
target hardening/protective security spectrum
THPSS
Advisors
Miller, Patrick E.
Halladay, Carolyn C.
Date of Issue
2023-03
Date
Publisher
Monterey, CA; Naval Postgraduate School
Language
Abstract
Urban municipalities feature pedestrian-rich environments with limited mitigation measures to prevent vehicle-caused pedestrian fatalities. Limited pedestrian protections represent an attractive target for nefarious actors to commit vehicle ramming attacks (VRA). There are defensive-minded methodologies that afford greater mitigation against deadly vehicle-versus-pedestrian collisions and VRAs in urban pedestrian-rich environments. This thesis examines the vulnerability of pedestrian-rich environments to vehicle-caused pedestrian fatalities and provide recommendations for stakeholders to better secure the environments. It also examines both the target hardening and protective security methodologies using a theoretical analysis model. By analyzing these defensive-minded methodologies, this thesis explores a homogenous framework for securing urban pedestrian-rich environments: the target hardening/protective security spectrum (THPSS). This thesis concludes with recommendations for urban municipalities to implement to better protect their respective pedestrian-rich environments from deadly vehicle-versus-pedestrian collisions and VRAs. This thesis provides recommendations to better secure outdoor dining establishments, street fairs, road races, and urban public parks from vehicle-caused fatalities.
Type
Thesis
Description
Series/Report No
Department
National Security Affairs (CHDS)
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Identifiers
NPS Report Number
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Distribution Statement
Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited.
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Copyright is reserved by the copyright owner.
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