MILITIA, NATIONALISM, AND POLICY IN GERMANY, POLAND, AND SWEDEN SINCE 2014

dc.contributor.advisorAbenheim, Donald
dc.contributor.advisorHalladay, Carolyn C.
dc.contributor.authorScott, Mathew J.
dc.contributor.departmentNational Security Affairs (NSA)
dc.date.accessioned2022-02-11T00:14:14Z
dc.date.available2022-02-11T00:14:14Z
dc.date.issued2021-12
dc.description.abstractEurope has witnessed radical change since 2014, with the Crimean annexation and immigration crisis creating fertile ground for national populists, paramilitaries, and hybrid war strategies in Germany, Poland, and Sweden. This thesis explores 100 years of paramilitary history with particular emphasis on the post-2014 time frame. The historical evidence answers two questions; how paramilitaries are endangering the state’s monopoly on violence amid changing civil-military relationships, and how policy can mitigate pathological paramilitary threats while improving local security given contemporary threats? The region is divided in outlook. One considers paramilitaries a malignant far-right extremist cadre. Another considers them extensions of the military-security apparatus under the state’s purview. Another has societal-militarization concepts that paramilitaries do not fit into, so they are left out entirely. These broad camps represent the respective approaches to paramilitarism of Germany, Poland, and Sweden. These three case studies suggest that militias and nationalism are expanding across borders as a backlash against Europe’s core political and economic arrangements—often with Russian encouragement—in various measures and degrees in each state. Still, the paramilitary phenomenon is a potential source of strength where states improve civil-military relations with prudent paramilitary directives.en_US
dc.description.distributionstatementApproved for public release. Distribution is unlimited.en_US
dc.description.serviceLieutenant, United States Navyen_US
dc.identifier.curriculumcode684, Europe and Eurasia
dc.identifier.thesisid34480
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10945/68744
dc.publisherMonterey, CA; Naval Postgraduate Schoolen_US
dc.rightsThis publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. Copyright protection is not available for this work in the United States.en_US
dc.subject.authorparamilitaryen_US
dc.subject.authorcivil-military relationsen_US
dc.subject.authorGermanyen_US
dc.subject.authorPolanden_US
dc.subject.authorSwedenen_US
dc.subject.authorright-wing movementen_US
dc.subject.authorEuropean securityen_US
dc.subject.authornationalismen_US
dc.subject.authormilitiaen_US
dc.subject.authorhybrid waren_US
dc.subject.authorgray zoneen_US
dc.subject.authorNATOen_US
dc.subject.authorPISen_US
dc.subject.authorAFDen_US
dc.subject.authorSweden Democratsen_US
dc.subject.authorNordic Resistance Movementen_US
dc.subject.authorNRMen_US
dc.subject.authorONRen_US
dc.subject.authorNOPen_US
dc.subject.authorKSKen_US
dc.subject.authorBundeswehren_US
dc.subject.authorlaw and justiceen_US
dc.subject.authorAlternative for Germanyen_US
dc.titleMILITIA, NATIONALISM, AND POLICY IN GERMANY, POLAND, AND SWEDEN SINCE 2014en_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dspace.entity.typePublication
etd.thesisdegree.disciplineSecurity Studies (Europe and Eurasia)en_US
etd.thesisdegree.grantorNaval Postgraduate Schoolen_US
etd.thesisdegree.levelMastersen_US
etd.thesisdegree.nameMaster of Arts in Security Studies (Europe and Eurasia)en_US
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