Publication:
THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA’S OPPOSITION TO NORMALIZATION WITH ISRAEL

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Authors
Warfel, Madison J.
Subjects
normalization
rapprochement
Israel
Saudi Arabia
KSA
Abraham Accords
Gulf Region
peace
international
domestic
Advisors
Russell, James A.
Date of Issue
2021-12
Date
Publisher
Monterey, CA; Naval Postgraduate School
Language
Abstract
This thesis addresses the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s refusal to normalize relations with Israel. The United States is the facilitator of normalization between Arab states and Israel and possesses an interest in successful rapprochement for regional stability and peace. KSA’s opposition to formal diplomatic relations with Israel presents a challenge to U.S. interests of regional stability and peace. To determine why KSA refused normalization, this thesis analyzes international, domestic, and individual factors. The main findings of the research are that each level holds explanatory power, and combined, these factors help one understand why KSA did not normalize relations with Israel. I argue that the international factor that explains KSA’s refusal is its offensive realist foreign policy approach. The domestic factors that dissuade KSA from normalization create fear for KSA regime survival. These domestic factors include public opinion, internal government opposition, and resistance from the Muslim world. The individual factors analysis sheds light on the historical opposition to normalization with Israel in the Saud family. To meet U.S. interests of peace and stability in the Arab world, it is paramount to understand why KSA did not normalize relations with Israel.
Type
Thesis
Description
Series/Report No
Department
National Security Affairs (NSA)
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NPS Report Number
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Distribution Statement
Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited.
Rights
This publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. Copyright protection is not available for this work in the United States.
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