Applicability of low impact development in the urban environment
Gorman, Cassie A.
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As cities have developed more intensively over time, runoff of rainfall after storms have created significant flooding problems. In some cases this runoff has also lead to health hazards with the spreading of disease. With the growth of these problems, several potential solutions have emerged. One such set of solutions is Low Impact Development (LID) methods. The focus of this paper is to determine the applicability of implementing (LID) stormwater management methods in urban areas to reduce stormwater runoff volume and pollutant loadings. Specifically, the paper focuses on the use of Low Impact Development on commercial and institutional land uses in urbanized areas. The paper first introduces some of the background issues associated with LID, including the history stormwater management, an understanding of stormwater as it relates to the hydrologic cycle, and a discussion of associated stormwater management issues. The second part of the paper discusses the regulatory framework for stormwater management including national and local policies. The third section introduces LID and examines the particular methods appropriate for commercial or institutional land uses in urbanized areas: bioretention, permeable pavements, and rain barrels. Case studies of urban LID projects are presented in the fourth section. The fifth section discusses the obstacles to implementing LID and discusses possible ways to encourage LID, specifically through stormwater utility credits. Finally, the last section presents conclusions and recommendations.
RightsThis publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. Copyright protection is not available for this work in the United States.
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