The sound propagation conditions in the Black Sea.
Denner, W. E.
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The sound propagation conditions in the central part of the Black Sea were investigated. Profiles of temperature and salinity were generated by averaging data from the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center over monthly periods. Wilson's equation was used to compute sound velocities and a digital computer program provided plots of sound velocity versus depth and selected ray trace diagrams. Seasonal temperature, salinity and sound velocity variations are found only in the upper layer of the Black Sea. Below 125 m, seasonal variations are insignificant. A well defined sound channel exists in the Black Sea that is caused by a cold intermediate layer. Therefore, a seasonal convergence zone is observed during the months of May, November and December. Finally, bottom reflectivity was calculated by Rayleigh's formula and surface backscattering strength was calculated according to Schulkin and Shaffer.
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