Synthesis and Characterization of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene
Palaniuk, D. Ryan
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Self standing nitrogen doped graphene sheets were produced by reduction-expansion method, which utilizes graphite oxide (GO) and urea as precursor materials. For comparison, an Atmospheric Microwave Plasma Torch system (ATP) was used to produce graphene samples under argon and nitrogen atmospheres from GO. Graphene samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, BET and Raman Spectroscopy. The GO and urea mixtures decomposition-reduction process, as well as nitrogen doped graphene stability at high temperatures, were studied by TGA/DSC analysis. Results indicate that the amount of nitrogen introduced into the graphene structure can be controlled by varying the initial amount of urea in precursor mixtures. Reduction-expansion method provides a pathway to generate nitrogen doped graphene by a process that is rapid, inexpensive and easy to scale up. Plasma produced graphene samples show higher surface areas than reduction-expansion produced samples, although no evidence was found of nitrogen doping by the use of nitrogen atmospheres under the plasma experimental conditions used. Resulting nitrogen doped self standing graphene sheets from reduction-expansion protocols are potential candidates to be used as ultracapacitor and battery electrodes.
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