Ocean hydroclimate: its influence on climate
Buchanan, Donald Gene
Leipper, Dale F.
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The statistical synthesis of selected oceanographic parameters (SST, SST anomalies, boundary heat exchanges, etc. ) over a specified period of time at a given place or over a given area is defined as ocean "Hydroclimate". Research and etymological background leading to the adoption of the term hydroclimate is discussed. Oceanic influence on atmospheric climate is described. In particular, the ocean's role within the earth's hydrologic cycle and heat budget is explained through hydrospheric, lithospheric, and atmospheric interactions, as related to SST distributions, ocean currents, upwelling, sea-breezes, and monsoons. SST anomalies as a cause of short period climatic variations are examined. The deep-sea sediment record of past SST conditions is shown to indicate past effects of the ocean on climate. A previously defined numerical index describing oceanicity, a quantitative measure of the ocean's effect on climate, is reviewed. An evaluation of hydroclimatic products most useful to meteorologists was prepared and includes a categorized list and individual evaluations of 62 hydroclimatic products.
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