Mongolia's search for security
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Mongolia entered a new security environment with the end of the Cold War. The demise of the Soviet Union and withdrawal of Soviet troops from its territory have presented opportunities and challenges for Mongolia. On the positive side, Mongolia has broken free from its narrow geostrategic framework and is now charting its own future by pursuing a more balanced policy toward Russia and China and exploring the opportunities for closer ties with the outside world. On the negative side, the end of Moscow's security umbrella heightened Ulaanbaatar's vulnerability. Now Mongolia must address on its own the entire spectrum of threats to its security. This thesis examines the dilemmas and opportunities facing Mongolia in the post-Cold War, post-Soviet Union world. Analyzing its changing relations with Russia and China, this study focuses on Mongolia's search for a 'third option' - reliable security and economic partners. The best strategy for Ulaanbaatar, while pursuing a balanced and neutral policy toward its neighbors, to maintain independence and economic survival is establishing counterweights to Moscow and Beijing's influence. Cooperation with the international community, active participation in regional and international arrangements, and creating a security regime in Northeast Asia comprise the 'third option'. Mongolia sees maximum benefits through multilateralism.
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