Border protection and national security of Mongolia
Bruneau, Thomas C.
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Both globalization and the 9/11 terrorist attacks spawned heated debates about border security. It is widely agreed that in a globalizing world borders should be as open as possible and much has been written in recent years about the value of 'soft' borders in maintaining good relations between neighboring states, creating borderland prosperity and developing successful open market economies. The reality, in many parts of the world, is that borders are hardening rather than softening as states, more than ever; seek to protect themselves from perceived external threats and to ensure that their frontiers are secure. Thus, today, managing borders and maintaining their security is a complex and challenging task for states. The aim of this thesis is to examine the implications of the re-emergence of security as a key dimension of boundary management and to seek answers to questions such as "Can borders actually be made secure?" and "If so, what border management strategies are available and how are they working in practice?" mostly, in Mongolia. According to the Mongolian National Security Concept of 1993, one of the nine securities of Mongolia, the security of Mongolian existence is defined by the guarantee of its independence, sovereignty, inviolability of state borders and territorial integrity. In the last 15 years, necessity of improvement in state border protection has arisen as a result of the changed foreign policy and socio-economic situation, military and political circumstances of the world and regions and the trends of the relations with neighboring countries. The thesis explores the effects of the policy options on the prevention of terrorism within Mongolian borders. It also explores the effects of those policy options on the movement of people across international borders. The scope is limited to border security policy and the implications are drawn for Mongolian policy makers. Three case studies are included from the Border Protection services of (1) the United States, (2) the Russian Federation and (3) the People's Republic of China. It is generally accepted both practically and theoretically that secure state borders are an integral part of national sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity of any nation. In the Information Technology dominated new century, the guarantee of national state borders' security and protection may be ensured if the specific national traditional ways of ensuring border security are creatively adjusted to modern international standards and to the latest scientific and technological trends.
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