Torsion in an incomplete tore: an approximate solution for the stress distribution in a circular ring sector under uniform torsion using energy methods.
Callaway, William Franklin
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The stress distribution in an incomplete tore loaded as shown in Fig. 1 is of particular interest since it very closely approximates that in heavy close-coiled helical springs under axial tension or compression. Necessarily the spring helix angle must be small, which is the case in a close-coiled spring.