The Lagrange-Galerkin method for the two-dimensional shallow water equations on adaptive grids
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The weak Lagrange-Galerkin finite element method for the two-dimensional shallow water equations on adaptive unstructured grids is presented. The equations are written in conservation form and the domains are discretized using triangular elements. Lagrangian methods integrate the governing equations along the characteristic curves, thus being well suited for resolving the non-linearities introduced by the advection operator of the fluid dynamics equations. An additional fortuitous consequence of using Lagrangian methods is that the resulting spatial operator is self-adjoint, thereby justifying the use of a Galerkin formulation; this formulation has been proven to be optimal for such differential operators. The weak Lagrange-Galerkin method automatically takes into account the dilation of the control volume, thereby resulting in a conservative scheme. The use of linear triangular elements permits the construction of accurate (by virtue of the second-order spatial and temporal accuracies of the scheme) and efficient (by virtue of the less stringent Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) condition of Lagrangian methods) schemes on adaptive unstructured triangular grids. Lagrangian methods are natural candidates for use with adaptive unstructured grids because the resolution of the grid can be increased without having to decrease the time step in order to satisfy stability. An advancing front adaptive unstructured triangular mesh generator is presented. The highlight of this algorithm is that the weak Lagrange-Galerkin method is used to project the conservation variables from the old mesh onto the newly adapted mesh. In addition, two new schemes for computing the characteristic curves are presented: a composite mid-point rule and a general family of Runge-Kutta schemes. Results for the two-dimensional advection equation with and without time-dependent velocity fields are illustrated to confirm the accuracy of the particle trajectories. Results for the two-dimensional shallow water equations on a non-linear soliton wave are presented to illustrate the power and flexibility of this strategy. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0363(20000730)33:6<789
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