The Guadalajara Accord between Brazil and Argentina: a tentative step toward the nuclear weapons-free Latin America envisioned by the Treaty of Tlatelolco
Martin, Francis Xavier
Tollefson, Scott D.
Yost, David S.
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In 1967, the treaty of Tlatelolco declared Latin America to be a nuclear weapons-free zone, but this goal remains unfulfilled. Argentina and Brazil, the :Latin American nations most capable of building nuclear weapons, refuse to comply with the treaty. Argentine and Brazilian military leaders pursued the development of nuclear weapons fro the 1970's to the late 1980's. The emergence of democratic regimes from the 1980's encouraged the gradual "denuclearization" of weapons research in these nations. In July 1991, the presidents of Argentina and Brazil signed an accord in Guadalajara, Mexico, each promising to abandon the development of nuclear weapons. The risks of nuclear proliferation may be reduced because of this agreement. The Guadalajara Accord offers hope that nuclear proliferation in Latin America can be slowed and perhaps stopped. The establishment of civilian control over the military and the reduction I the belligerent rivalry between Argentina and Brazil are central factors in ending the quest for nuclear weapons. The firm commitment of these civilian leaders to pursue only peaceful nuclear activities is a positive sign. The adoption of IAEA full-scope safeguards in Argentina and Brazil will be the best guarantee for a nuclear weapons-free Latin America.
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