The impact of executive order 10988 on labor relations in the Defense Department.
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On 17 January 1962, Executive Order 10988 (Employee-Management Cooperation in the Federal Service) ushered the Federal manager (both military and civilian) into a new era of employee-management relations. The unknown impact of the Order and its many possible implications within DOD had led to the development of a multiple measuring method (interview, questionnaire, statistical records, content analysis, and tabulation of critical incidents), to determine how management and "unions" have been effected by this Order. All of the military services and the employee organizations dealing with DOD activities were surveyed at the Washington level, and also a questionnaire was sent to a random group of 110 military activities and their corresponding "union" locals. Reliability and validity were established at .87+ and .74+ respectively. The final results were plotted on an ordinal bipolar scale with a positive correlation of .405. The analyzed results were reported in three categories, optimistic, pessimistic, and best estimate. In general, the best estimate indicated that the Order is meeting its stated objectives. The major accomplishments, to date, are improved communications, cooperation and training. Problems do exist and the "small" and "informal" employee organizations are probably losing ground in membership strength. There is some frustration and disappointment. Some significant problems are the "conflict of interest" issue, election procedures (60% rule, no run-off) and hostile civilian supervisors. However, the Order appears to be meeting the definite need of clarifying employee status and management policy. The improved cooperation and communications should prove a source of strength to the Civil Service. The knowledge of the results of this study, and their implications, should be educational to the Federal manager and assist him as he discharges his duties.
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