A computational and experimental study of flush heat sources in liquids
Haukenes, Larry Olaf
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A numerical investigation of two-dimensional natural convection flow and heat transfer from a substrate-mounted flush heat source immersed in a liquid-filled square enclosure was conducted. The study is relevant to direct liquid-immersion cooling of electronic-components. A control volume based finite-difference model that accounts for conduction heat transfer within the substrate and heat source and the coupled natural convection in the fluid was utilized. Numerical predictions were obtained for a wide range of Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers, substrate to fluid and heat source to fluid thermal conductivity ratios and other geometrical parameters that may be encountered in practice. An increase in Rayleigh number lead to more vigorous flow and promoted cooling. No noticeable effect on the nondimensional temperature was observed when changing the Prandt number from 7 to 100. Little reduction in maximum temperatures was observed when substrate and component to fluid thermal conductivity ratios were increased beyond 10 and 25, respectively. Component to substrate width ratio change from .25 to .999 resulted in approximately linear decrease in the maximum temperature. A companion experimental study of three- dimensional natural convection transport from a flush mounted array of heat sources in water was also conducted. Computer temperatures compared favorably to appropriate experimental data.
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