Mission analysis for the Mars 2007 opportunity
Zike, Stephen B.
Ross, I. Michael
Steven E. Matousek.
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In 2007, NASA will launch an orbiter and a lander to Mars in support of science and exploration goals. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is responsible for the mission design. A trajectory analysis is necessary to ensure that the most cost-effective interplanetary transfer is implemented. This thesis presents a comprehensive analysis of all possible type 1, 2, 3, and 4 Earth-Mars trajectories with reasonable launch energy requirements as well as possible return trajectories to Earth for the case of a sample return. Launch periods were determined using the JPL programs MIDAS and CATO. The corresponding C3 requirements for each trajectory were then utilized to obtain the performance capabilities for the Delta II series, Atlas II series, and Ariane 4/5 launch vehicles. The injected mass derived from the performance data was subsequently used as the spacecraft design point. The goal of this analysis was to identify the trajectory type and orbiter capture scheme that produced the maximum post- capture orbiter mass. The advantages and disadvantages of propulsive capture, aerocapture, and aerobraking are addressed for numerous launch scenarios in which the orbiter and lander are either launched on separate launch vehicles or on a single launch vehicle. This comparison was successful in demonstrating the impact of the orbiter capture scheme on the selection of the optimal trajectories.
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