A hybrid, large-scale wireless sensor network for real-time acquisition and tracking
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This thesis proposes a hybrid, large-scale wireless sensor network (WSN) designed to support real-time target detection and tracking of multiple ballistic missile threats. In particular, the proposed WSN consists of terrestrial as well as satellite nodes. The IR signatures presented by the target-background combination are explored and modern IR sensor technologies are examined in search of a suitable IR sensor for the proposed hybrid, large-scale WSN. A multicolor, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP), step-stare, large-format Focal Plane Array (FPA) is proposed and evaluated through performance analysis. The thesis proposes an efficient data dissemination mechanism as well as a suitable medium access control (MAC) scheme for the proposed WSN, designed to meet the real-time and accuracy requirements without introducing excessive overhead and increased end-to-end time-delays. A clustering mechanism, called the "Area of Interest" (AOI) is introduced, which combines the "content based" feature of the data centric routing approach with the principles of in-network data aggregation and clustering. Simulation results verify that aggregation within the AOI improves the data throughput across the full range of network load. A contention based MAC scheme, Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA), and a contention free approach, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), are examined. Performance analysis and simulation results indicate that a contention-free approach is suitable for implementation in wireless networks associated with large propagation delays and increased offered loads. Matlab and OPNET ModelerÂ© software packages are used to simulate and evaluate the proposed schemes.
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