Application of the community radiative transfer model to evaluate satellite-based measurements across the African Easterly Jet over Western Africa
Ernest, Richard D.
Elsberry Russell L.
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The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) has been used to determine which polar-orbiter satellite channels are best suited to remotely sense in a cloud-free environment the lower-tropospheric temperature and moisture gradients that determine the location and intensity of the African Easterly Jet over West Africa. This study evaluates the capability of five microwave sensors and three infrared sensors, including both conical- and cross-track scanning instruments. Atmospheric profiles obtained during the JET2000 field experiment blended with the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting model analyses are input in the CRTM to obtain brightness temperature outputs. To address separately the moisture (temperature) signature, the average of the northern and southern temperature (moisture) profiles were combined with the real moisture (temperature) profiles. The effects of land surface emissivity uncertainty of +/-3% for microwave and +/-1% for infrared were tested. From the total set of 423 channels evaluated, 11 microwave and 21 infrared channels were found appropriate for obtaining moisture gradient information, but after applying emissivity perturbations this list was reduced to two microwave and 20 infrared channels. Temperature gradient information was determined to be available from 35 microwave channels and 95 infrared channels, with no impacts noted due to emissivity perturbations.
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