Shaping Jihadism how Syria molded the Muslim Brotherhood
Robinson, Glenn E.
Gregg, Heather S.
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In February 1982, Syrian President Assad's military and security forces surrounded, assaulted, and leveled he fourth largest city in Syria, Hama, killing between 5,000-25,000 Syrians in less than three weeks. It was the culmination of an escalating five year revolutionary war between the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood and )resident Hafez Assad's rule. Through the use of overwhelming force and a government sponsered moderate Islamification process, the Muslim Brotherhood was transformed from a violent revolutionary opposition movement to a peace oriented social organization calling for a representative democratic government. Using Social Movement Theory (SMT) and Dr. McCormik's Mystic Diamond, this thesis demonstrates how extreme state violence affects opposition social movements. It analyzes why the Muslim Brotherhood's revolution failed, why the Assad regime succeeded, and how its overwhelming defeat transformed the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood from a violent revolutionary organization to a peaceful social movement. The Syrian countr-insurgency model provides a variable strategy that can be applied to existing and future insurgencies throughout the Middle East.
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