Characteristics and use of a nonlinear end-fired array for acoustics in air
Akar, Ali Onur
Denardo, Bruce C.
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The parametric array exploits two highly collimated ultrasound beams interacting in a given volume producing a single beam with very high directivity and almost no side lobes. The high directivity of the difference frequency signal of the parametric array is due to the interaction of the waves in the volume effectively producing a virtual endfired array boosting pressure levels along the interaction region which is limited by the absorption coefficient. This thesis focuses on experiments conducted in an anechoic room using AS-18-B Audio Spotlight system from HolosonicTM. Furthermore, nonlinear theory was modeled by a linear discrete array. The beam pattern of the parametric loudspeaker, range dependence of primary and secondary signals and total harmonic distortion (THD) were measured and then compared to theory. Experimental data for the beam pattern of the parametric loudspeaker agreed with the theory. It was all shown that the parametric array had a very narrow beam width and almost no side lobes as opposed to conventional loudspeakers. Both primary waves and difference wave frequency signals were examined for their range dependence. Due to the complicated interference of the primary waves, it was impossible to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. For the difference wave signals, experimental data was verified by theory, which was modified in order to accommodate both wave generation and spreading region. Finally, THD of the parametric loudspeaker was measured for different amplitude modulation depths. Experimental results showed that preprocessing should be applied in order to decrease THD and achieve clean audio signal reproduction.
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