The formation of concentric vorticity structures in typhoons
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An important issue in the formation of concentric eyewalls in a tropical cyclone is the development of a symmetric structure from asymmetric convection. We propose, with the aid of a nondivergent barotropic model, that concentric vorticity structures result from the interaction between a small and strong inner vortex (the tropical cyclone core) and neighboring weak vortices (the vorticity induced by the moist convection outside the central vortex of a tropical cyclone). The results highlight the pivotal role of the vorticity strength of the inner core vortex in main taining itself, and in stretching, organizing and stabilizing the outer vorticity held. Speci cally, the core vortex induces a di erential rotation across the large and weak vortex to strain out the latter into a vorticity band surrounding the former. The straining out of a large, weak vortex into a concentric vorticity band can also result in the contraction of the outer tangential wind maximum. The stability of the outer band is related to the Fj rtoft su cient condition for stability because the strong inner vortex can cause the wind at the inner edge to be stronger than the outer edge, which allows the vorticity band and therefore the concentric structure to be sustained. Moreover, the inner vortex must possess high vorticity not only to be maintained against any deformation eld induced by the outer vortices but also to maintain a smaller enstrophy cascade and to resist the merger process into a monopole. The negative vorticity anomaly in the moat serves as a \shield" or a barrier to the further inward mixing the outer vorticity eld. Our binary vortex experiments suggest that the formation of a concentric vorticity structure requires: 1) a very strong core vortex with a vorticity at least six times stronger than the neighboring vortices, 2) a large neighboring vorticity area that is larger than the core vortex, and 3) a separation distance between the neighboring vorticity held and the core vortex that is within three to four times the core vortex radius.
J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 2722-2734. (Manuscript)
RightsThis publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. Copyright protection is not available for this work in the United States.
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