Comparison between Liouville's theorem and observed latitudinal distribution of trapped ions in the plasmapause region
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The presence of anisotropic plasma distributions, trapped at the Earth's magnetic equator, has consequences for the electric field structure which must exist in equilibrium along the magnetic field line. Data from SCATHA and Dynamics Explorer 1indicated that the core ion distributions at the magnetic equator can be well described as bi-Maxwellian distributions, with a perpendicular temperature an order of magnitude larger than the parallel temperature.
Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 99, pp. 2191-2203