Weapons Design Analysis Using 1-Meter Terrain Resolution Battlefield Simulators
Kemple, William G.
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Simulation of battlefield systems in operational scenarios require the calculation of concealment, cover, and detectability to properly evaluate their performance and effectiveness on the battlefield. In the past so called “high resolution” simulations such as Janus and the Combined Arms and Support Task Force Evaluation Model (CASTFOREM) typically performed such calculations using geometric line-of-sight (GLOS) on 25-meter terrain resolution and model micro-terrain effects statistically. Results provided by such simulations do not account for the individual soldier’s ability to take advantage of local cover and concealment in an individual engagement while carrying out tactical missions. New 1-meter terrain analysis tools developed by personnel at the Naval Postgraduate School(NPS), the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), and independent contractors have allowed substantial improvement in our ability to simulate individual engagements and assess the effects of micro terrain features on tactical mission success. This paper introduces the architecture and fast ray-tracing algorithms capable of calculating realistic 1-meter terrain perspective views in real-time on PC based platforms. We then describe how this algorithm is extended to perform view-based line-of-sight calculations (VLOS) and replace the old GLOS approach. This new technique calculates a small perspective view for each simulation player pair of interest. The perspective view is then analyzed. Partial player visibility, sensor location, major obscurant, and background contrast information are now all available and can be used to perform deterministically modeled detections and engagement effectiveness calculations. We conclude the paper with case studies conducted to analyze the effectiveness of various system designs utilizing the 1-meter terrain tools now available. We describe the ability to select routes, modify tactics, and analyze engagement opportunities when accounting for high-resolution terrain features. Sample analysis results are presented to show the effects of design alternatives on mission performance.
Fall 2000 Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Paper Number 118.Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) SIW Conference Paper
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