A CMOS VLSI IC for real-time opto-electronic two-dimensional histogram generation
Richstein, James K.
Pieper, Ronald J.
Fouts, Douglas J.
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Histogram generation, a standard image processing operation, is a record of the intensity distribution in the image. Histogram generation has straight forward implementations on digital computers using high level languages. A prototype of an optical-electronic histogram generator has been designed and tested for 1-D objects using wirewrapped MSI TTL components. The system has shown to be fairly modular in design. The aspects of the extension to two dimensions and the VLSI implementation of this design are discussed. In this paper, we report a VLSI design to be used in a two-dimensional real-time histogram generation scheme. The overall system design is such that the electronic signal obtained from the optically scanned two-dimensional semi- opaque image is processed and displayed within a period of one cycle of the scanning process. Specifically, in the VLSI implementation of the two- dimensional histogram generator, modifications were made to the original design. For the two-dimensional application, the output controller was analyzed as a finite state machine. The process used to describe the required timing signals and translate them to a VLSI finite state machine using Computer Aided Design Tools is discussed. In addition, the circuitry for sampling, binning, and display have been combined with the timing circuitry on one IC. In the original design, the pulse width of the electronically sampled photodetector is limited with an analog one-shot. The high sampling rates associated with the extension to two dimensions requires significant reduction in the original 1-D prototype's sample pulse width of approximately 75 ns.
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