Robot Calibration Using an Automatic Theodolite
Driels, Morris R.
Pathre, Uday S.
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The Vision Based Automatic Theodolite (VBAT) is an automatic partial pose measurement system for robot calibration. It uses low resolution rotation stages and resolution enhancement from a vision system to determine the line-of-sight to a spherical illuminated target. Automatic tracking, focusing, and centring provide the calibration system with speed, reliability, and repeatability. A kinematic model of the VBAT is described which includes both the mechanical parts of the system and the optics, using a modified Denavit-Hartenberg approach. All parameters in the VBA T model are identified and embedded into the system controller producing an instrument of 2 arc second accuracy. The system is then used in a conventional manner to calibrate a six degree of freedom PUMA robot, and the results compared to another calibration of the same arm by a coordinate measuring machine with repeatability and accuracy of 0.02 ram. The calibration using the VBA T enhances the accuracy of the PUMA to within 0.2 mm of that produced by the CMM calibration, compared to an accuracy of 14 mm prior to calibration.
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