Civil resistance: an essential element of a total defense strategy
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In 1994 Gene Sharp, founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, which advances the study of nonviolent action, met former Estonian minister of defense Hain Rebas and suggested that civil resistance be added to Estonian Defense Policy. The idea never materialized. The current National Defense Policy and National Defense Strategy do not include civil resistance. The Estonian National Defense Development Plan for 2013‒2022 states that military capability at the end of 2022 will consist of up to 90,000 soldiers, which is less than ten percent of the Estonian population. Comprehensive state defense does not use the nation’s non-military capability even though there is recognition that civil resistance is an important force multiplier. This thesis urges Estonia to reconsider Sharp’s proposal.
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