Hiding in Plain Sight: Denial, Deception, and the Non-State Actor
Wirtz, James J.
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History is replete with examples of militaries that have used denial and deception to gain victory on the battlefield. Denial withholds accurate information from an adversary, while deception puts forward misleading information that conforms to the expectations of an opponent. Recently, the advent of the information age has allowed small non-state actors, particularly terrorist organizations, to engage in denial and deception—with often devastating results. Unfortunately, states have been slow to adjust, which has allowed terrorist groups to carry out their attacks while hiding in plain sight of their targets.
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