El Niño and La Niña Effects on the Northeast Pacific: The 1991-1993 and 1988-1989 Events
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The 1991-93 El Niiio and 1988-89 La Niiia events had substantial effects throughout the tropical Pacific Ocean and atmosphere. These events also greatly affected the extratropics, especially the northeastern Pacific region. A mechanism which appears to have been important in producing these effects was tropical atmospheric forcing of the mid-latitude atmosphere. This process caused shifts in the mid-latitude storm track over the North Pacific. These shifts led to marked changes in the wind forcing of the ocean, which apparently caused substantial ocean anomalies. Evidence for an additional teleconnection mechanism involving ocean Kelvin waves was found in the equatorial Pacific.
Murphree and Reynolds: El Nino and La Nina in the Northeast Pacific, CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 36, 1995.
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