The U.S. arms embargo of 1975--1978 and its effects on the development of the Turkish defense industry
Looney, Robert E.
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The defense industry is one of the most important and fastest-growing industries inTurkey. It not only provides for the Turkish military, but also exports many systems and equipment to other countries. WhileTurkey has a vibrant defense industry now, it had almost no industry 40 years ago before its military operation in Cyprus. Due to the rise of the internal conflict in the Republic of Cyprus,Turkey sent its troops on July 20, 1974, in order to protect thousands of Turkish Cypriots on the island. The United States opposed the Turkish operation and imposed an arms embargo onTurkey in 1975 that lasted for three years. This thesis tries to assess the effects of the U.S. arms embargo on Turkish defense capability and examine how the embargo influenced the development of the Turkish defense industry. The embargo had a serious impact on the Turkish economy and defense capability because the Cyprus campaign required continuous logistical support, andTurkey was dependent on the United States for many of its military supplies. Feeling the effects of the embargo,Turkey initiated a program to develop its own defense industry, which still progresses today. The thesis concludes that while the embargo created problems at the time, it eventually helpedTurkey to create a strong defense industry and become less dependent on other countries.
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