The consequences to national security of jurisdictional gray areas between emergency management and homeland security
Pearson, Edward M.
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The September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on United States (U.S.) soil memorialized as 9/11 served as the catalyst for major reforms in the federal government. Twenty-two agencies combined to form the Department of Homeland Security with a mission of preventing homeland attacks and reducing U.S. vulnerability to terrorism. Accomplishing this amalgamation has led Federal Emergency Management Agency supported emergency management discipline principles and homeland security supported discipline principles to create jurisdictional gray areas (JGAs) with stakeholders on a path of division in preparedness, training, and command. Defining all-hazards placed them at opposite ends of the spectrum. The purpose of this research is to determine the presence of JGAs, and define all-hazards. Case study and qualitative methodologies are utilized to examine three cases for JGAs, a disaster, act of terrorism, and an act of workplace violence. The results revealed utilizing an incident command system on any of these incidents reduces JGAs, Presidential Policy Directive-8 (PPD-8) provides a holistic approach to disaster and terrorism, and an all-hazards incident also requires a management component. The recommendations are: 1) further research in reducing U.S. vulnerability to terrorism, 2) support to sustain HS as a recognized discipline, and 3) research that identifies mentally unstable employees prior to acts of workplace violence.
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