A rationale for the outcomes of insurgencies: a comparison case study between insurgencies in Peru and Nepal
Kapur, S. Paul
Khan, Feroz H.
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The left-wing insurgency in Peru waged by the Shining Path, or Sendero Luminoso (SL), and the Maoist insurgency in Nepal launched by the Communist Party of Nepal (CPN(M)) have impacted their respective states and societies. Despite similarities in the social, economic, and political grievances in the two states, the insurgencies had dramatically different trajectories and outcomes. The SL leadership did not exploit political opportunities effectively, and when its leader was captured, the SL collapsed. In contrast, the CPN(M) leadership applied pragmatic approaches and exploited political opportunities. The CPN(M) entered into mainstream politics and even won the general election of 2008. This thesis argues that SL leadership developed around a cult of personality, applied a dogmatic military approach, and adopted a violent approach in elimination of class enemies, whereas the CPN(M) leadership style developed around moderate communists, applied progressive ideology, and embraced the grievances of the indigenous people. Whatever the trajectory, insurgencies have demonstrated a potential threat affecting state and society. Furthermore, given that terrorism is transnational and that insurgents engage in terrorist activities, it is imperative for such armed struggles to be ended expeditiously and effectively. This thesis highlights the importance of a political approach as an important means for ending an insurgency successfully.
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