Electronic Property Modification of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Encapsulation of Sulfur-Terminated Graphene Nanoribbons
Chamberlain, Thomas W.
Khlobystov, Andrei N.
Hooper, Joseph P.
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The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as cylindrical reactor vessels has become a viable means for synthesizing graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). While previous studies demonstrated that the size and edge structure of the as-produced GNRs are strongly dependent on the diameter of the tubes and the nature of the precursor, the atomic interactions between GNRs and surrounding CNTs and their effect on the electronic properties of the overall system are not well understood. Here, it is shown that the functional terminations of the GNR edges can have a strong infl uence on the electronic structure of the system. Analysis of SWCNTs before and after the insertion of sulfur-terminated GNRs suggests a metallization of the majority of semiconducting SWCNTs. This is indicated by changes in the radial breathing modes and the D and G band Raman features, as well as UV–vis–NIR absorption spectra. The variation in resonance conditions of the nanotubes following GNR insertion make direct (n,m) assignment by Raman spectroscopy diffi cult. Thus, density functional theory calculations of representative GNR/SWCNT systems are performed. The results confirm significant changes in the band structure, including the development of a metallic state in the semiconducting SWCNTs due to sulfur/tube interactions. The GNR-induced metallization of semiconducting SWCNTs may offer a means of controlling the electronic properties of bulk CNT samples and eliminate the need for a physical separation of semiconducting and metallic tubes.
The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201401034
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