Server Siblings: Identifying Shared IPv4/IPv6 Infrastructure via Active Fingerprinting
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We present, validate, and apply an active measurement tech- nique that ascertains whether candidate IPv4 and IPv6 server addresses are “siblings,” i.e., assigned to the same physical machine. In contrast to prior efforts limited to passive monitoring, opportunistic measurements, or end-client populations, we propose an active methodology that gen- eralizes to all TCP-reachable devices, including servers. Our method ex- tends prior device fingerprinting techniques to improve their feasibility in modern environments, and uses them to support measurement-based detection of sibling interfaces. We validate our technique against a di- verse set of 61 web servers with known sibling addresses and find it to be over 97% accurate with 99% precision. Finally, we apply the technique to characterize the top ∼6,400 Alexa IPv6-capable web domains, and discover that a DNS name in common does not imply that the corre- sponding IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are on the same machine, network, or even autonomous system. Understanding sibling and non-sibling rela- tionships gives insight not only into IPv6 deployment and evolution, but also helps characterize the potential for correlated failures and suscepti- bility to certain attacks.
Includes article and presentation.PAM 2015 - 16th Passive and Active Measurement Conference
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