Critical Time Requirements for Operational Use of Deterministic and Ensemble Tropical Cyclone Track Forecasts
Elsberry, Russell L.
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Tropical cyclone track forecasts have been improved, and forecast intervals have been extended to five days, owing to improved global and regional numerical model guidance. Critical time requirements that must be met for operational use of the deterministic model track forecasts are summarized for the U.S. and other selected non-U.S. tropical cyclone warning centers. One of the most accurate deterministic model forecasts from the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts arrives too late to be used with other models at the + 6 h warning time, and thus is at least 12 h old before it can be operationally used. The time-critical nature of the tropical cyclone warning system is a major obstacle to operational use of single-model, or proposed multi-model, ensemble prediction system (EPS) mean and spread information, which is 12 h (or 18 h) delayed. This EPS mean and spread must also be superior to the mean and spread of the consensus of deterministic models that are available six hours earlier. These requirements must be met before the EPS tropical cyclone tracks will be operationally useful in specifying the uncertainty in the official track forecasts, which is the next challenge in tropical cyclone track warnings.
The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13143-010-0014-3
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