High Definition Sounding System (HDSS) for atmospheric profiling
Smith, Robert W.
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Widely-used Tropical Cyclone (TC) models include regional air-sea coupled dynamical models such as COAMPS-TC (Hao, et al, 2013), HWRF (Tallapragada, et al., 2014; Kim, et al., 2014) and GFDL (Bender et al., 2007; Gall, et al., 2011), global dynamical models such as GFS and ECMWF, and statistical-dynamical intensity-prediction models such as SHIPS, STIPS, L-GEM, RII (DeMaria and Kaplan, 1999; DeMaria, et al., 2005; Knaff et al., 2005; Jones, et al., 2006; DeMaria, 2009; DeMaria, 2010; Kaplan, et al., 2010). All of these models benefit from improved 3-D spatial observational plus enhanced temporal resolution, i.e. better 4-D capability. The need for enhanced 4-D profile observations is driven by the need for enhanced model resolution of the physics of small-scale processes such as convective events, boundary layer air-sea transfer processes and upper troposphere outflow jets. These requirements demand a concurrent enhancement in 4-D profile observational capability at finer spatial and temporal scales. Observations and observational strategies for initial condition specification and forecast validation within and around TCs require continual improvement to match these model demands while providing a basis for improvements in process understanding and parameterization on increasingly smaller scales.