The effect of surface and linear internal waves on higher order acoustic moments in shallow water
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Acoustic fields in shallow water have a statistical nature due to complex, time-evolving sound speed fields and scattering from rough boundaries. Previously, coupled-mode transport theory [Raghukumar and Colosi (2012)] was applied to high frequency acoustic fluctuations in an environment typical of the Shallow Water 2006 (SW06) experiment on the New Jersey continental shelf. As a consequence of the strong adiabatic component in SW06 propagation, a hybrid approach was used to calculate mode coherences where mode energies from the Dozier- Tappert approach were combined with adiabatic phase terms. Mode energies, coherences and acoustic intensities were examined and it was found that internal and surface waves preferentially couple low and high modes respectively. Here, we extend that study to include higher moments such as scintillation index and shift focus to modes that are coupled by both internal and surface waves. Oceanographic and sea surface measurements are used to constrain the internal wave and sea surface models. The relative importance of linear internal waves and surface scattering effects are studied using transport theory and Monte Carlo simulations.
The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4799345
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