Validating Visual Simulation of Small Unit Behavior
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A large number of contemporary military simulations and game-based systems employ models of human behavior where individual members of simulated military formations are represented as virtual human agents. However, we do not yet see a comparable research effort directed towards ensuring that this type of representation is realistic. While a simulation of an entire military formation has its own challenges, the realistic representations of individual humans in the same formation raises a multit11de of additional issues the modelers need to be aware of. This paper presents the results of our study focused on validation of visual representations of humans and human behavior models; a specific situation examined in this work was a simulation of small unit operations in a typical urban warfare environment. Each subject in our study observed eight videos showing different actions in an urban environment, and was asked to evaluate and comment on selected perfOrmance traits in each video, Our findings suggest that two major categories of comments were raised: one dealing with the realism of human behavior (non-military component), and another dealing with the correctness of simulating military tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs); both appear to be important when evaluating the overall realism of simulated unit behavior. Given the availability of fully immersive training systems, the increased number of trainees who get exposed to such systems, and the importance of avoiding negative training transfer, this type of system validation is becoming ever more significant. Guided by the results of this study we introduce a tenn ’break in behavioral presence’ (BIBP) and discuss its importance in training simulations. Finally, the paper provides a basic framework for validation of human behavior models, with the ultimate goal of ensuring that the investments made in developing this type of simulation get maximized.
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