On an application of symbolic computation and computer graphics to root-finders: The case of multiple roots of unknown multiplicity
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The contemporary powerful mathematical software enables a new approach to handling and manipulating complex mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects. Particularly, the use of symbolic computation leads to new contribution to constructing and analyzing numerical algorithms for solving very difficult problems in applied mathematics and other scientific disciplines. In this paper we are concerned with the problem of determining multiple zeros when the multiplicity is not known in advance, a task that is seldom considered in literature. By the use of computer algebra system Mathematica, we employ symbolic computation through several programs to construct and investigate algorithms which both determine a sought zero and its multiplicity. Applying a recurrent formula for generating iterative methods of higher order for solving nonlinear equations, we construct iterative methods that serve (i) for approximating a multiple zero of a given function f when the order of multiplicity is unknown and, simultaneously, (ii) for finding exact order of multiplicity. In particular, we state useful cubically convergent iterative sequences that find the exact multiplicity in a few iteration steps. Such approach, combined with a rapidly convergent method for multiple zeros, provides the construction of efficient composite algorithms for finding multiple zeros of very high accuracy. The properties of the proposed algorithms are illustrated by several numerical examples and basins of attraction.
The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cam.2016.06.008
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