Time/frequency relationships for an FFT-based acoustic modem
Jenkins, William F.
Rice, Joseph A.
Ziomek, Lawrence J.
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5km) communications in the 9-14 kHz band. The proposed scheme exploits a higher carrier frequency at 45 kHz and increased spectral bandwidth compatible with the short-range link, thus achieving an increased channel capacity. Analytical expressions are provided for the scheme, which combines principles of M-ary frequency-shift keying (MFSK) and orthogonal frequencydivision multiplexing (OFDM) in a modulation referred to as multi-channel MFSK. The proposed scheme consists of 32 orthogonally spaced channels, each of which contains a 4-ary FSK pulse train. Existing medium-range modem algorithms are adapted for the higher carrier frequency and candidate variations are implemented with bandwidths of 10 and 20 kHz. The variations involve bandwidth scaling or multiplexing the original 5 kHz spectral bandwidth. Of concern for short-range links in shallow water is multipath interference, which causes time-spreading and significant intersymbol interference (ISI). Dominant eigenray paths are determined in order to estimate the amount of time-spread expected in various shallow water environments. These are analyzed with respect to the time/frequency relationships of multi-channel MFSK to comparatively evaluate the candidate variations in terms of protection against ISI. On this basis, we propose multiplexing the 5 kHz MFSK modulation across the larger operating band.
RightsThis publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. Copyright protection is not available for this work in the United States.
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