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dc.contributor.authorSmith, Roger K.
dc.contributor.authorMontgomery, Michael T.
dc.contributor.authorThomsen, Gerald L.
dc.date.accessioned2017-04-07T17:48:59Z
dc.date.available2017-04-07T17:48:59Z
dc.date.issued2014-04
dc.identifier.citationSmith, R.K., Montgomery, M.T., Thomsen, G.L., "Sensitivity of tropical-cyclone models to the surface drag coefficient in different boundary-layer schemes," Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, v.140, (2014). 792–804.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10945/52556
dc.descriptionThe article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.2057en_US
dc.description.abstractThe recent study of the sensitivity of tropical-cyclone intensification to the surface drag coefficient in a three-dimensional model by Montgomery et al. is extended to include a wind-speed-dependent drag coefficient and one of four boundary-layer parametrization schemes: the bulk, Blackadar, MRF and Gayno–Seaman schemes. The schemes are slightly modified to have the same drag coefficient formulation and the same constant exchange coefficients for sensible heat and moisture. Interest is focused on the change in intensity of the azimuthally-averaged tangential wind speed and change in the low-level vortex structure when the standard value of the drag coefficient is halved or doubled. Changing the drag coefficient provides insight into unbalanced effects in the boundary layer and their impact on the vortex evolution and structure. The changes in vortex behaviour with changing drag coefficient are qualitatively similar for all schemes, the maximum intensification occurring for a value somewhere near the standard value of the drag coefficient. The interpretation given to explain this behaviour underlines the intrinsically unbalanced nature of the boundary-layer dynamics, although, for reasons discussed, a complete theory for the behaviour does not exist. The behaviour found is at odds with the predictions of Emanuel’s (balance) theory for the maximum intensity of a tropical-cyclone, which predicts a monotonic decrease in intensity with the drag coefficient if the enthalpy exchange coefficient is held fixed. It is at odds also with a recent numerical study of the maximum intensity by Bryan and Rotunno. The study underscores the importance of boundary-layer dynamics in models for forecasting tropical-cyclone intensity and the need for care in choosing a boundary layer scheme. However, it is not yet known which boundary-layer formulation is the most appropriate for this purpose, highlighting the need for a concerted research effort in this direction.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipGerman Research Councilen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipU.S. Office of Naval Researchen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundationen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNOAA hurrican Research Divisionen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNASAen_US
dc.format.extent14 p.en_US
dc.publisherRoyal Meteorological Societyen_US
dc.rightsThis publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. Copyright protection is not available for this work in the United States.en_US
dc.titleSensitivity of tropical-cyclone models to the surface drag coefficient in different boundary-later schemesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.corporateNaval Postgraduate School (U.S.)en_US
dc.contributor.departmentMeteorologyen_US
dc.subject.authorHurricanesen_US
dc.subject.authorTropical cyclonesen_US
dc.subject.authorTyphoonsen_US
dc.subject.authorSurface drag coefficienten_US
dc.subject.authorFrictional dragen_US
dc.subject.authorBoundary layeren_US
dc.description.funderGrant No. SM30/23-1 (GRC)en_US
dc.description.funderGrant No. N0001411Wx20095 (ONR)en_US
dc.description.funderAGS-0733380 and AGS-0851077 (NSF)en_US
dc.description.funderGrants NNH09AK561 and NNG09HG031 (NASA)en_US


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