|dc.description.abstract||Intelligence support to the operating forces has been restructured to provide intelligence required
along the joint command organization. Although there have been joint intelligence organizations
previously, most intelligence support was provided along service lines. The new structure is a major departure from the previous organization. The new structure is primarily a reflection of the new joint command structure with its emphasis on the CJCS, the Joint Staff, the CINC's, and the Joint Task Force. The new intelligence structure was strongly insisted upon by the DoD and key congressional committees. Major cuts in the intelligence community (funding and personnel) were also important factors in the restructuring. The services were generally opposed
to the new concept, although Naval Intelligence was quick to recognize the advantages of early
Another key factor enabling the establishment of centralized JlC's was the advent of decentralized
computer based systems and improved data communications connectivity, permitting centralized data
storage and rapid dissemination. The appearance of the Joint Defense Intelligence Support System
(JDISS) and the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS) are prime examples of
the availability of the new systems and connectivity.
Another major development is the production of the new joint intelligence publications, and the
intelligence Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP's). These publications are establishing common
doctrine and terms for the military intelligence community. However, some confusion still exists
regarding intelligence terminology. For example, the Navy still uses the term OPINTEL to mean what is now defined more closely as tactical intelligence. This paper uses terms as defined in Joint Pub 2-0, "Joint Doctrine for Intelligence Support to Operations", in which strategic, operational, and tactical intelligence are described as supporting those three levels of warfare, and intelligence production is divided among I&W, current, general military intelligence (GMI), targeting, and technical categories of intelligence.
The remainder of this paper will describe the structure and functions of the major JICs, starting with the National Military Joint Intelligence Center (NMJIC) in Washington, D.C.||en_US