Control over the Nile : implications across nations
Chesire, David K.
Borer, Douglas A.
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Worldwide, shared water resources continue to attract attention owing to the nature of utilization, which often leads to either conflict or co-operation among and between countries. This study evaluates the issues of water scarcity among the Nile basin countries, the legitimacy of contested water agreements, and their impact on interstate relations. Among the major findings of the study are; several agreements entered between Egypt, Sudan, and Britain as a colonial power in the region have served as sources of conflict over the use of the Nile waters, and Egypt continues to monopolize utilization of the Nile waters despite increasing efforts by other riparian states towards a cooperative framework for equitable utilization. Moreover, water scarcity in the region results from over-consumption of Nile water by Egypt and Sudan, rising populations, and environmental changes. Further, the international community, notably the African Union and the United Nations have not played significant roles in resolving water disputes in the Nile basin. Recommendations include, that, alongside pursuing renegotiation of Nile water agreements, riparian states need to consider exploring alternative water sources, and address rising populations. In addition, the international community needs to take a more proactive role in resolving the Nile water dispute.