Fabrication of high energy density tin/carbon anode using reduction expansion synthesis and aerosol through plasma techniques
MetadataShow full item record
The aim of this study was to fabricate tin/carbon (Sn/C) battery anodes using a novel approach, reduction expansion synthesis (RES), and test their performance as electrodes in lithium or sodium batteries. A second preparation route, the Aerosol-Through-Plasma (ATP) method, was also employed for comparison. The specimens generated were characterized, before and after cycling, using techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The RES technique was successful in creating remarkably small (ca. <5 nm) nano-scale particles of tin dispersed on the carbon support. The use of the electrodes as part of coin cell batteries resulted in capacitance values of 320 mAh/g and 110 mAh/g for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, respectively. Nano-sized Sn particles were found before and after cycling. It is believed that bonds between metal atoms and dangling carbon produced via the reduction of the carbon surface during RES were responsible for the materials' ability to withstand stresses during lithiation, avoid volumetric expansion, and prevent disintegration after hundreds of cycles. When tin loading in Sn/C was increased from 10% to 20%, an increase of capacitance from 280 mAh/g to 320mAh/g was observed; thus, increased tin loading is recommended for future studies. Tin/carbon produced using ATP presented morphology consistent with stable electrodes, although battery testing was not completed because of the difficulty of producing the material in sufficient quantity.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Somnhot, Parina (Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School, 2012-03);Lithium-ion batteries possess high energy and power densities, making them ideal candidates for energy storage requirements in various military applications. Commercially produced lithium-ion battery anodes are commonly ...
Calculation of electron scattering cross sections for Carbon-Twelve and Lithium-Six using phase shift analysis Dennis, Samuel Johnson (Monterey, California; Naval Postgraduate School, 1970-06);A phase shift analysis is used to obtain scattering cross sections for incident electrons on Carbon-12 and Lithium-6. Results are given for incident electron energies of 10-100 Mev and for scattering angles of 45, 90 and ...