Optical characterization and confocal fluorescence imaging of mechanochromic acrylate polymers
van Horn, M.
Read de Alanis, J.
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The development of mechanochromic molecules has opened new pathways for the study of localized stress and failure in polymers. Their application as stress or temperature diagnostics, however, requires suitable measurement techniques capable of detecting the force- and temperature-sensitive chemical species with high spatial resolution. Confocal imaging techniques offer excellent spatial resolution but the energy input during these measurements can itself affect the activation state of the mechanochromic species. Here, we present a systematic study of the effects of laser-based imaging on the activation and fluorescence behavior of mechanochromic spiropyran (SP) integrated into poly( methyl acrylate) (PMA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices using a confocal Raman microspectrometer. Localized stress and temperature activation were studied by means of high-rate compressive loading and dynamic fracture. Laser illumination of SP in PMA revealed a strong excitation wavelength- and power-dependence. Suitable correction functions were established and used to account for the observed laser effects. The presented study demonstrates that confocal imaging using conventional Raman spectrometers is a powerful characterization tool for localized stress analysis in mechanochromic polymers, offering quantifiable information on the activation state with high spatial resolution. However, laser-mechanophore interactions must be well understood and effects of laser excitation and exposure times must be taken into consideration when interpreting the obtained results.
The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4906326
RightsThis publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. Copyright protection is not available for this work in the United States.
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van Horn, M.; Smith, P.; Mason, B.P.; Hemmer, J.R.; Read de Alaniz, J.; Hooper, J.P.; Osswald, S. (2015);The development of mechanochromic molecules has opened new pathways for the study of localizedstress and failure in polymers. Their application as stress or temperature diagnostics, however,requires suitable measurement ...
Naval Postgraduate Schoo; Van Horn, Matthew (Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2013-11-22);Mechanochromic molecules open new pathways for the study of micro-damage in polymers. Their application stress and temperature diagnostics, however, requires measurement techniques capable of detecting the activated force- ...
Hemmer, J.R.; Smith, P.D.; van Horn, M.; Alnemrat, S.; Mason, B.P.; Read de Alaniz, J.; Osswald, S.; Hooper, J.P. (2014);We report the high strain-rate response of a spiro-pyran (SP) mechanophore in poly(methylmethacrylate). Previ-ous work on this system has demonstrated a reversible bondscission in the SP under local tensile force, converting ...