Maxwell and Crookes Radiometers  [video]
Naval Postgraduate School Physics
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Radiometers tested at 10 mTorr . The four radiometers in the foreground are horizontal vane radiometers. Because our horizontal vane design was inspired by Maxwell’s qualitative explanation of the shear pressure due to thermal transpiration , we are calling it Maxwell Radiometer. On the rotating radiometers, the color scheme on the bottom of the vanes matches the color scheme on the top (white under white, black under black). On the stationary radiometer, the color scheme on the bottom of the vanes is opposite to the color scheme on the top (white under black, black under white). The rotating vanes are moving with the white side leading due to thermal transpiration of the rarefied gas from the colder white side of the vane to the hotter black side of the vane. In the stationary radiometer, the force due to thermal transpiration on the top surface is opposite to that of the bottom surface.  D. Wolfe, A. Larraza, and A. Garcia. “A Horizontal vane radiometer: Experiment, theory and simulation.” Submitted  Filmed by Aaron Lopez and Jose Lopez during their summer internship at NPS, Physics Department. Edited by Gene Morris.  Brush, S. G. (1976). The kind of motion we call heat, pp 222-224
NPS PhysicsNPS Physics Research Projects
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Wolfe, David M. (Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2016-06);The existence of two motive forces on a Crookes radiometer has complicated the investigation of either force independently. The thermal creep shear force, in particular, has been subject to differing interpretations of the ...
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