A new era of accountability: international legal reform could make states liable for cyber abuse
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The poor quality of security services offered by providers of information and communication technology, or ICT, complicates, even stymies, domestic and international efforts to discourage and lawfully respond to criminal activity, acts of terrorism and armed aggression in cyberspace. As a result, cyberspace has become a parallel universe in which the criminal, terrorist and unlawful combatant can operate with a high degree of impunity. Adding to the challenge, the privacy services provided in the form of user anonymity and data encryption make it difficult for law enforcement, intelligence organizations and militaries to attribute actions, whether lawful or not, to specific individuals or state actors.