When is a cyberattack a use of force or an armed attack?
Boothby, William H.
von Heinegg, Wolff Heintschel
Michael, James Bret
Schmitt, Michael N.
Wingfield, Thomas C.
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News reports and public discussion about cyberattacks appear daily in traditional and social media. Cyberattacks used in the commission of crimes, such as stealing customer credit card information, defacing websites, distributing child pornography via file-sharing sites, and creating and leasing out botnets, have become commonplace. Moreover, cyberattacks that once were considered extraordinary - in particular, those carried out as part of state-sponsored military or intelligence operations - will likely increase in frequency and severity.
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