The Budapest memorandum and Russia's Intervention in Ukraine
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The Budapest Memorandum won attention in 2014 as an early casualty of the Ukraine crisis. The memorandum concerning Ukraine was one of three almost identically worded statements issued in December 1994, alongside similar documents for Belarus and Kazakhstan. Meeting in the margins of the Budapest summit of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE),1 Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States extended security assurances to Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine in return for their acceding to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) as non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS) and transferring all the Soviet-made nuclear warheads on their territory to Russia.2 China and France issued separate and distinct statements regarding their security assurances in this connection.
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