Promotion expenditure, categories, time lag structure and the demand for almonds
Malina, Mary A.
Gates, William R.
Doerr, Kenneth H.
MetadataShow full item record
The Almond Board of California (ABC) finances four promotional programs to increase the demand for California almonds: public relations, advertising, food services and nutrition research. This analysis relates ABC's expenditures by category to U.S. almond demand. It assesses ABC's return on investment and guides managerial decisions across programs. ABC expenditures have a significant effect on domestic almond shipments, explaining 16.7% of the variation in shipments. However, only advertising is strongly significanteach dollar spent increases almonds shipped eight months later by 8.25 pounds. Food services approached significanceeach dollar spent increases almonds shipped 11 months later by 32.8 pounds.
NPS Report NumberNPS-GSBPP-05-007
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