The Effect of Antiretroviral Therapy Use Among HIV-1 Positive Children on the Hazard of AIDS Using Calendar Year as an Instrumental Variable
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Instrumental variable (IV) analyses are now a common causal inference technique used in the absence of randomized data. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was first introduced in 1996. Therefore, calendar periods have been used as a proxy for ART use. However, ART use misclassification can bias IV analyses.