European Union : US Hegemonic Competitor
Kellar, Ronald Leslie
Looney, Robert Edward
Roessler, Tjarck G.
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Since World War II, Europe has evolved from the Westphalian international system into a consociational, supranational state system opting to trade sovereignty for collective economic, political and military security. Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change from Co mmunity to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993. The transition to supranationalism and its governance is a result of the integration and interdependence of Europe realized through institution building and the resultant evolution of cooperation. After WWII, the United States developed a unipolar hegemony toward Europe through the implementation of a number of US-led initiatives â Bretton Woods, the United Nations, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the European Recovery Plan, and the founding of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In the interim, the United States waged a Cold War against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which served to strengthen US resolve to support rising free-market democracies and eclipsed the rise of yet another contender for superpower status â the European Community (EC). The emerging Î²superÎ³ Westphalian state will prove to be the single economic rival to US hegemony in the post-Cold War era. The bipolar struggle between the United States and the European Union will play out on the economic battlefields of regional markets.
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